KNOW CANCER BY ORGAN INVOLVED

URO-ONCOLOGY

What is uro oncology?

Uro-oncology is a sub-speciality of urology, that mainly deals with the cancers involving various organs of the urinary tract. The organs include:

Kidneys

Renal pelvis

Ureters

Urinary bladder

Prostate

Urethra

Penis

Testicles

Who is a uro-oncologist?

A urologic oncologist is a physician with special training in diagnosing and treating cancers of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.


KIDNEY CANCER

Introduction:

The kidneys filter the blood and the waste products are transferred through the ureters to be stored in the bladder as urine. Urine is then discharged through the urethra to empty the bladder. Kidneys play a vital role in production of blood cells from bone marrow, maintenance of blood pressure and also in Vit-D metabolism.

There are several types of cancer that can affect the kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is the most common form and accounts for approximately 85% of all kidney cancers. In RCC, malignant cells develop in the lining of the kidney's tubules and typically grow into a mass called a tumour. The earlier kidney tumours are discovered, the better a patient's chances for survival. Tumours discovered at an early stage often respond well to treatment. Survival rates in such cases are high. Tumours that have grown large or spread to other parts of the body are much more difficult to treat and present a greatly increased risk to patients life.

Patients who have loin pain, blood in urine or a vagulely felt lump in upper abdomen are likely to have kidney cancer. It is important to consult a nearby doctor to get ultrasound scan followed by a specialist consultation to decide on further course of action.


BLADDER CANCER

Cancer that begins in the bladder.

This cancer typically affects older adults. It's usually diagnosed early, when it's still treatable. It's likely to recur, so follow-up tests are typically recommended.

The most common symptom is blood in the urine. Patients may also have lower abdominal pain.

Treatments include endoscopic resection of the mass (TURBT) and radical removal of the whole urinary bladder and a few adjoining structures..

Patients would also need chemotherapy and radiotherapy depending on the severity.


PENILE CANCER

A disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the penis.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase the risk of penile cancer. Condom use and the HPV vaccine can help prevent infection with HPV.

Penile cancer may begin as a blister on the foreskin, head or shaft of the penis. It may become a wart-like growth that discharges blood or foul-smelling liquid.

Surgery is the most common treatment for all stages of penile cancer. Other options include radiation and chemotherapy. Lymphnodes in the groin and the pelvis may also need removal, depending on the grade and stage of the disease.


PROSTATE CANCER

Prostate gland lies at the neck of the bladder deep down in the lower part of abdomen (pelvis) and is normally involved in sexual reproduction process. Prostate size normally increases with age and causes symptoms. The most common reason for the urinary symptoms is benign (non cancerous) age related enlargement of prostate. Generally, these symptoms can be well controlled with medication or by a small operation (TURP).

Prostate cancer in India: There is increasing incidence of prostate cancer noted in Indian population. In major cities like Delhi and Kolkata, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. Compared to Caucasian (white) patients, there is early evidence to suggest that prostate cancer is more lethal in Asian men.

It is advisable for patients with difficulty passing urine to seek specialist help to discuss investigation for prostate cancer. This advice is more important in patients who have early onset of symptoms in their fifties and patients who have a first degree relative (father, paternal or paternal uncle) who has suffered with prostate cancer.


Symptoms:

The symptoms of prostate cancer include

• Difficulty passing urine

• Blood in the urine

• Needing to strain to pass urine

• Pain deep in the pelvis (in front of back passage

• Bony pain


TESTICULAR CANCER

Cancer in the male organs that make male hormones and sperm (testicles).

The testicles are located inside a loose bag of skin (scrotum) underneath the penis.

Symptoms include a lump in either testicle and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

Treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

This tumour involving the testicles is one of the curable forms of urogenital cancers.

Cancer in the male organs that make male hormones and sperm (testicles).

The testicles are located inside a loose bag of skin (scrotum) underneath the penis.

Symptoms include a lump in either testicle and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

Treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.